Journal of Food Safety and Hygiene 2016. 2(1/2):42-46.

Involvement of oxidative stress in the sulfadiazine hepatotoxicity in chicken embryo model
Atefeh Araghi, Seyed Mohammad Hoseini, Reza Sayrafi, Parisa Sadighara


Drug residues and its side effects are one of the major problems in global concerning for food contamination. Veterinary drugs in food-producing animals have potential to generate residues in animal-derived products and pose a health hazard to the customers. Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is a group of synthetic antibiotics with broad-spectrum effects. The present study was conducted to assess SDZ hepatotoxicity in chicken embryo models. SDZ was injected on the day 4 of chicken’s incubation. Afterward, the livers and serum samples were collected after hatching. In addition, oxidative stress and biochemical parameters in organs and blood were measured, respectively. We found that there was a significant change in the liver’s enzyme activities. Histopathological findings and liver enzyme activity indicated that SDZ is a hepatotoxic agent. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, and also the same decrease was observed in glutathione level. Furthermore, a small reduction in ferric reducing/antioxidant power and total carotenoids were seen. Overall, the results of this study suggested the presence of oxidative stress in SDZ hepatotoxicity. These data might be useful in applying antioxidant components for protection of hepatotoxicity associated with SDZ therapy.


Sulfadiazine; Toxic hepatitis; Oxidative stress; Chickens

Full Text:



Kan CA, Petz M. Residues of veterinary drugs in eggs and their distribution between yolk and white. J Agric Food Chem 2000; 48: 6397-6403.

Weiss C, Conte A, Milandri C, et al. Veterinary drugs residue monitoring in Italian poultry: Current strategies and possible developments. Food Control 2007; 18: 1068-1076.

Furusawa N, Hanabusa R. Cooking effects on sulfonamide residues in chicken thigh muscle. Food Research International 2002; 35: 37-42.

Mulla SI, Sun Q, Hu A, et al. Evaluation of sulfadiazine degradation in three newly isolated pure bacterial cultures. PLoS One 2016; 11: e0165013.

Lemanska-Malinowska N, Felis E, Surmacz-Gorska J Photochemical degradation of sulfadiazine. Arch Environ Prot 2013: 39: 79-91.

Forti AF, Scortichini G. Determination of ten sulphonamides in egg by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 2009; 637: 214-219.

Vandenberge V, Delezie E, Huyghebaert G, et al. Residues of sulfadiazine and doxycycline in broiler liver and muscle tissue due to cross-contamination of feed. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2012; 29: 180-188.

Wang H, Xu Y, Song W, et al. Automatic sample preparation of sulfonamide antibiotic residues in chicken breast muscle by using dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with solid-phase extraction. J Sep Sci 2011; 34: 2489-2497.

Dalla Bona M, Di Leva V, De Liguoro M. The sensitivity of Daphnia magna and Daphnia curvirostris to 10 veterinary antibacterials and to some of their binary mixtures. Chemosphere 2014; 115: 67-74.

Gharibi S, Dilmaghanian A, Sadighara P, et al. The effect of bisphenol a on oxidative stress indices and pathological changes in the brain of chicken embryos. World Appl Sci 2015; 26: 345-351.

Sadighara P, Mohammadpour I, Jahanbakhsh M, et al. The effect of stevia on the chicken embryo heart. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets 2016; 16: 38-40.

Sicinska P, Bukowska B, Michalowicz J, et al. Damage of cell membrane and antioxidative system in human erythrocytes incubated with microcystin-LR in vitro. Toxicon 2006; 47: 387-397.

Gibson XA, Shartava A, McIntyre J, et al. The efficacy of reducing agents or antioxidants in blocking the formation of dense cells and irreversibly sickled cells in vitro. Blood 1998; 91: 4373-4378.

Thaipong K, Boonprakob U, Cisneros-Zevallos L, et al. Hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activities of guava fruits. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2005; 36: 254-257.

Majeed SK, Al-Sereah BA, Essa IM. The sulfonamide exposure and the histopathological alterations of domestic pigeon. Bas J Vet Res 2014; 1: 82-93.

Odigie BE. Histological effects of pre-exposure prophylactic consumption of sulfa drugs on Liver and Kidney of albino Wister rats (Rattus novergicus). IOSR J Pharm Biol Sci 2013; 5: 14-19.

Singh A, Bhat TK, Sharma OP. Clinical biochemistry of hepatotoxicity. J Clinic Toxicol 2011; S4: 1-19.

Ribelin WE, Owen G, Rubin LF, et al. Development of cataracts in dogs and rats from prolonged feeding of sulfaethoxypyridazine. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1967; 10: 557-564.

Khalili H, Soudbakhsh A, Talasaz AH. Severe hepatotoxicity and probable hepatorenal syndrome associated with sulfadiazine. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2011; 68: 888-892.

Vaziri ND, Wang XQ, Oveisi F, et al. Induction of oxidative stress by glutathione depletion causes severe hypertension in normal rats. Hypertension 2000; 36: 142-146.

Reddy PE, Manohar SM, Reddy SV, et al. Ferric reducing ability of plasma and lipid peroxidation in hemodialysis patients: Intradialytic Changes. Int J Nephrol Urol 2010; 2: 414-421.

Zotou A, Vasiliadou C. LC of sulfonamide residues in poultry muscle and eggs extracts using fluorescence pre-column derivatization and monolithic silica column. J Sep Sci 2010; 33: 11-22.

Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, et al. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev 2010; 4: 118-26.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.