Risk of foodborne pathogens in various food products at retail in Qatar
AbstractFoodborne illness is a major limitation to the advancement of world health. Bacterial pathogens among the leading causes of foodborne illness include Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Listeria. In an effort to understand the risk these foodborne pathogens pose regionally, this study investigated the presence of these pathogens among retail products in Qatar. Using a combination of bacterial selection and molecular detection, swabs and food samples collected from retail items (n = 287) were screened for the presence of these foodborne pathogens. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 4.2% of all samples tested. Other E. coli serogroups were detected at varying proportions across all samples: O26 (5.9%), O111 (3.5%), O121 (1.4%), O45 (20.2%), O103 (2.1%) and O145 (2.1%). The occurrence of the other pathogens varied: Salmonella (13.6%), Listeria (5.2%), C. jejuni (1%), C. coli (8%) and C. lari (0%). While E. coli O157:H7 arguably receives the most attention in STEC surveillance programs, our study shows that other food adulterant serotypes, such as E. coli O45, could potentially play a role in infection. Although the prevalence for many pathogens is low, the higher occurrence of STEC genes and STEC serotype O45 is a reason for concern.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015. Estimates of foodborne disease in the United States. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden/. Cited: May 2017.
World Health Organization. 2015. Food safety: Global burden of foodborne diseases. Available at: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/areas_work/foodborne-diseases. Cited: May 2017
Havelaar AH, Haagsma JA, Mangen MJ, et al. Disease burden of foodborne pathogens in the Netherlands, 2009. Int J Food Microbiol 2012; 156: 231-238.
Hoffmann S, Batz MB, Morris JG, Jr. Annual cost of illness and quality-adjusted life year losses in the United States due to 14 foodborne pathogens. J Food Prot 2012; 75: 1292-1302.
Käferstein FK, Motarjemi Y, Bettcher DW. Foodborne disease control: a transnational challenge. Emerg Infect Disease 1997; 3: 503-510.
Hird S, Stein C, Kuchenmuller T, et al. Meeting report: Second annual meeting of the World Health Organization initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases. Int J Food Microbiol 2009; 133: 210-212.
Den Aantrekker ED, Boom RM, Zwietering MH, et al. Quantifying recontamination through factory environments - a review. Int J Food Microbiol 2003; 80: 117-130.
Reij MW, den Aantrekker ED, ILSI Europe Risk Analysis in Microbiology Task Force. Recontamination as a source of pathogens in processed foods. Int J of Food Microbiol. 2004; 91: 1-11.
Kusumaningrum HD, Riboldi G, Hazeleger WC, et al. Survival of foodborne pathogens on stainless steel surfaces and cross-contamination to foods. Int J Food Microbiol 2003; 85: 227-236.
Jackson V, Blair IS, McDowell DA, et al. The incidence of significant foodborne pathogens in domestic refrigerators. Food Control. 2007; 18: 346-351.
Lues JFR, Van Tonder I. The occurrence of indicator bacteria on hands and aprons of food handlers in the delicatessen sections of a retail group. Food Control 2007; 18: 326-332.
Havelaar AH, Brul S, de Jong A, et al. Future challenges to microbial food safety. Int J Food Microbiol 2010; 139; S79-S94.
Newell DG, Koopmans M, Verhoef L, et al. Food-borne diseases-The challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge. Int J Food Microbiol 2010; 139: S3-S15.
Bohaychuk VM, Gensler GE, King RK, et al. Occurrence of pathogens in raw and ready-to-eat meat and poultry products collected from retail marketplace in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. J Food Protect 2006; 69: 2176-2182.
Zhao C, Ge B, de Villena J, et al. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella serovars in retail chicken, turkey, pork and beef from the greater Washington, D.C., area. Appl Environ Microbiol 2001; 67: 5431-5436.
Hara-Kudo Y, Konuma H, Kamata Y, et al. Prevalence of the main food-borne pathogens in retail food under the national food surveillance system in Japan. Food Addit. Contam. Part A 2013; 30: 1450-1458.