Journal of Food Safety and Hygiene 2016. 2(3/4):54-62.

Influence of sucrose and high temperature on grape anthocyanin stability and furfural formation
Mitra Kouzeh Koulani, Rashid Jamei, Ahmad Poursattar Marjani


Anthocyanins are a group of compounds that belong to flavonoid family and these are of great interest in the food industry, mainly due to their coloring properties. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of high concentration of sucrose and high temperature on the stability of Rish¬ baba and Ghare ghezel uzom varieties of Urmia grape anthocyanins at low pH (2 and 3) and different time periods and to measure furfural content after 20 h heating at 90 ℃ by HPLC. After extraction of anthocyanins, the pH value was adjusted on 2 and 3 by citrate buffer (0.1 M). The extraction was exposed to different concentration of sucrose (40 and 60%) at 90℃ for 52 h. Degradation of anthocyanin was evaluated according to the absorbance at 520 nm. The extraction of furfural was accomplished by 1, 2 dichloromethane. The results showed that the absorbance at 520 nm from 0 to 4 hours decreased and then increased because of brown pigment replaced instead of anthocyanin from 4 h. Furfural content was higher in samples with anthocyanin+sucrose than samples without sucrose. The results indicated that browning depends on the pH and sucrose concentration.


Anthocyanin; Grape; Temperature; Furfural

Full Text:



Makris DP, Kallithraka S, Kefalas P. Flavonols in grapes,grape products and wines: Burden, profile and influential parameters. J Food Compos Anal 2006; 19: 396-404.

Baiano A, Terracone C. Varietal differences among the phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of seven table grape cultivars grown in the south of Italy based on chemometrics. J Agri Food Chem 2011; 59: 9815-26.

Luque-Rodríguez J, de Castro ML, Pérez-Juan P.Dynamic superheated liquid extraction of anthocyanins and other phenolics from red grape skins of wine making residues. Biores Technol 2007; 98: 2705-13.

Evans M, Wilson D, Guthrie N. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study to evaluate the effect of whole grape extract on antioxidant status and lipid profile. J Function Food 2014; 7: 680-91.

Chandrasekhar J, Madhusudhan M, Raghavarao K.Extraction of anthocyanins from red cabbage and purification using absorption. Food Bioprod Process 2012; 90: 615-23.

Hasnaoui N, Jbir R, Mars M, et al. Organic acids, sugars,and anthocyanins contents in juices of Tunisian pomegranate fruits. Int J Food Propert 2011; 14: 741-57.

Kruger MJ, Davies N, Myburgh KH, et al.Pro anthocyanidins, anthocyanins and cardiovascular diseases. Food Res Int 2014; 59: 41-52.

Pojer E, Mattivi F, Johnson D, et al. The case for anthocyanin consumption to promote human health: a review. Comprehens Rev Food Sci Food Safe 2013; 12:483-508.

Jaganath, IB, Crozier A. (2009) Dietary Flavonoids and Phenolic Compounds, in Plant Phenolics and HumanHealth: Biochemistry, Nutrition, and Pharmacology (edC. G. Fraga), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ,USA. doi: 10.1002/9780470531792.ch1.

Reyes LF, Cisneros-Zevallos L. Degradation kinetics and colour of anthocyanins in aqueous extracts of purple-andred-flesh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). Food Chem2007; 100: 885-94.10. Reyes LF, Cisneros-Zevallos L. Degradation kinetics andcolour of anthocyanins in aqueous extracts of purple-andred-flesh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). Food Chem 2007; 100: 885-94.

Turfan Ö, Türkyılmaz M, Yemiş O, et al. Anthocyanin and colour changes during processing of pomegranate(Punica granatum L., cv. Hicaznar) juice from sacs and whole fruit. Food Chem 2011; 129: 1644-51.

Wrolstad RE, Skrede G, Lea P, et al. Influence of sugar on anthocyanin pigment stability in frozen strawberries. JFood Sci 1990; 55: 1064-65.

Dyrby M, Westergaard N, Stapelfeldt H. Light and heat sensitivity of red cabbage extract in soft drink model systems. Food Chem 2001; 72: 431-37.

Daravingas G, Cain R. Thermal degradation of black raspberry anthocyanin pigments in model systems. JFood Sci 1968; 33: 138-42.

Krifi B, Metche M. Degradation of anthocyanins from blood orange juices. Int J Food Sci Technol 2000; 35:275-83.

Granados JQ, Mir MV, Serrana HLG, et al. The influence of added caramel on furanic aldehyde content of matured brandies. Food Chem 1996; 56: 415-19.

Debicki‐pospišil J, Lovrić T, Trinajstić N, et al.Anthocyanin Degradation in the Presence of Furfural and 5‐Hydroxymethyl furfural. J Food Sci 1983; 48: 411-16.

Harrison TJ, Dake GR. An expeditious, high-yielding construction of the food aroma compounds 6-acetyl-1, 2,3, 4-tetrahydropyridine and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. J OrganChem 2005; 70: 10872-74.

Davies, CGA, Labuza, TP. The Millard reaction application to confectionary products. Available at:;jsessionid=28C82E21B4670CEB02D83E7A2136F971?doi=, cited Apr 10, 2016.

Chiriboga C, Francis F. Anthocyanin recovery system from cranberry pomace. In Proc Amer Soc Hort Sci.1970.

Chen, Sh, Xiang, Y, Deng, J. et al. Simultaneous Analysis of anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin flavonoid in various tissues of different lotus (Nelumbo) cultivars by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. PLOS-ONE 2013;8

Giusti MM, Wrolstad RE. Characterization and measurement of anthocyanins by UV‐visible spectroscopy. Current Protoc Food Anal Chem 2001;F:F1:F1.2.

Tsai P, Delva L, Yu T, et al. Effect of sucrose on the anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity of mulberry extract during high temperature heating. Food Res Int 2005; 38:1059-65.

Liu F, Sivoththaman S, Tan Z. Solvent extraction of 5-HMF from simulated hydrothermal conversion product.Sustain Environ Res 2014; 24: 149-157.

Ferrer E, Alegrıa A, Farre R, et al. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of furfural compounds in infant formulas: Changes during heat treatment and storage. J Chrom A 2002; 947: 85-95.

Amerine MA, Ough CS. 1980. Methods for analysis of musts and wines. A Wiley-Inter science publication.

Kim H, Bin Y, Karthick S, et al. Natural dye extracted from Rhododendron species flowers as a photosensitizer in dye sensitized solar cell. Int J Electrochem Sci 2013; 8:6734-43.

Zorić, Z, Dragović-Uzelac, V, Pedisić, S, et al. Heat-induced degradation of antioxidants in Marasca paste.Food Technol Biotechnol 2014; 52:101–08.

He X-l, Li X-L, Lv Y-P, et al. Composition and color stability of anthocyanin-based extract from purple sweet potato. Food Sci Technol 2015; 35: 468-73.

Turker N, Aksay S, Ekiz Hİ. Effect of storage temperature on the stability of anthocyanins of a fermented black carrot (Daucus carota var. L.) beverage: shalgam. J AgriFood Chem 2004; 52: 3807-13.

Albarici TR, Pessoa JDC. Effects of heat treatment and storage temperature on the use of açaí drink by nutraceutical and beverage industries. Food Sci Technol 2012; 32: 9-14.

Kırca A, Cemeroğlu B. Degradation kinetics of anthocyanins in blood orange juice and concentrate. Food Chem 2003; 81: 583-87.

Lu LZ, Zhou YZ, Zhang YQ, et al. Anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato by means of microwave baking and acidified electrolysed water and their antioxidation invitro. Int J Food Sci Technol 2010; 45: 1378-85.

Parisa S, Reza H, Elham G, et al. Effect of heating, UV irradiation and pH on stability of the anthocyanin pigment complex. Pakistan J Biol Sci 2007; 10: 267-72.

Bakhshayeshi M, Khayami M, Heidari R, et al. The effects of light, storage temperature, pH and variety on stability of anthocyanin pigments in four Malus varieties.Pakistan J Biol Sci 2006; 9: 428-33.

Bieza K, Lois R. An arabidopsis mutant tolerant to lethal ultraviolet-B levels shows constitutively elevated accumulation of flavonoids and other phenolics. PlantPhysiol 2001; 126: 1105-15.

Spayd SE, Tarara JM, Mee DL, et al. Separation of sunlight and temperature effects on the composition of Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot berries. American J Enol Viticul 2002; 53: 171-82.

Amr A, Al‐Tamimi E. Stability of the crude extracts of Ranunculus asiaticus anthocyanins and their use as food colourants. Int J Food Sci Technol 2007; 42: 985-91.

Palamidis N, Markakis P. Stability of grape anthocyaninin a carbonated beverage. J Food Sci 1975; 40: 1047-49.

Patras A, Brunton NP, O'Donnell C, et al. Effect of thermal processing on anthocyanin stability in foods;mechanisms and kinetics of degradation. Trends Food Sci Technol 2010; 21: 3-11.

de Rosso VV, Mercadante AZ. Evaluation of colour and stability of anthocyanins from tropical fruits in an isotonic soft drink system. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 2007;8: 347-52.

Rubinskiene M, Viskelis P, Jasutiene I, et al. Impact ofvarious factors on the composition and stability of blackcurrant anthocyanins. Food Res Int 2005; 38: 867-71.

Cao S, Liu L, Lu Q, et al. Integrated effects of ascorbic acid, flavonoids and sugars on thermal degradation of anthocyanins in blood orange juice. Euro Food Res Technol 2009; 228: 975-83.

Yang Z, Han Y, Gu Z, et al. Thermal degradation kinetics of aqueous anthocyanins and visual color of purple corn(Zea mays L.) cob. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol 2008;9: 341-47.

Karami Z, Yousefi GH, Emam Djomeh Z. Modeling and optimization of ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration with finished freeze drying on black cherries-the effect on antioxidant activities. L Food Biosci Technol 2013; 3: 11-22.

Srivastava J, Vankar PS. Canna indica flower: New source of anthocyanins. Plant Physiol Biochem 2010; 48:1015-19.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.