Journal of Food Safety and Hygiene Tehran University of Medical Sciences en-US Journal of Food Safety and Hygiene Furan in processed food: formation, toxicology and monitoring: a Review Furan is an organic, and volatile compound that formed in some of the heat-treated foods during thermal processing. Thermal degradation of ascorbic acid, amino acids, carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids, and carotenoids can form this compound. In Europe, furan dietary exposure was estimated to range between 1.23 and 1.01 µg/kg bw/day for adults and 3 to 12 month-old infants, respectively. It is known that this compound has hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic effects in rats and mice, also stimulate carcinogenicity is possible features in a genetic pathway. Since a genotoxic mode of action cannot be ejected for furan-induced tumor formation, there is a relatively small difference between possible human exposure and the doses in experimental animals required to produce carcinogenic effects. This review summarizes the present knowledge of furan toxicity, human dietary exposure to furan. As well as, the role of some important factors, for example, heating temperature for furan formation process in a vast range of heated foods, increases the need to establishing the risk resulting from the genotoxic and carcinogenic characteristics of this compound. Payam Safaei Afsaneh Mohajer Gholamreza Jahed Khaniki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 3 1/2 1 6 Evaluation of meat safety knowledge, attitudes and practices among slaughter house workers of Amathole District in eastern Cape Province, South Africa Good slaughter hygiene practices are mandatory to minimize chances of microbiological contamination during meat processing. Thus, knowledge and training in meat safety are important to improve the attitudes of workers who are reported to frequently engage in poor handling practices. The objective of the study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes towards meat safety and personal hygiene of slaughter personnel from low throughput (LTA’s) and high throughput abattoirs (HTA’s). Data were collected using structured questionnaires with questions on some important meat safety cues. About 40% of abattoir employees attained secondary education and this was significantly greater than those with no education (25%), primary (26.7%) and tertiary (8.3%) (P<0.05). A significantly greater proportion of respondents (55%) had more than 5 years of experience compared to those with ≤5 years (P<0.05). Overall, a greater proportion of respondents had valid health certificates (62.5%), though a significant proportion (35%) were from the HTA’s. More medical examination defaulters (7.5%) were from LTA’s compared to HTAs (2.5%) (P<0.05). The majority (47.5%) of respondents were treated for illnesses in clinics or hospitals, whereas some self-medicated (22.5%), visited traditional healers (22.5%) and 7.5% went to pharmacies. Secondary and tertiary educated respondents who received professional training showed a significantly greater willingness to disinfect work clothes, contact surfaces and wear gloves (P<0.05). A significant proportion of respondents (70%) who received professional training showed greater willingness to report illness than untrained (P<0.05). In spite of results showing basic hygiene compliance, aspects such as medical examination and professional training still need improvement. Faith Nyamakwere Voster Muchenje Borden Mushonga Erick Kandiwa Morris Makepe Gabriel Mutero ##submission.copyrightStatement## 3 1/2 7 15 Effect of chitosan and cinnamon essential oil on a food-borne pathogen and antioxidant activity in frozen rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Food industries use synthetic preservatives to improve the quality and enhance the shelf life of food products during storage. However, the most common industrial strategies for preservation may not always bring the desired protection for curbing corruption. Furthermore, consumer demands for safer foods encourage researchers to find natural and effective preservatives. In this study, the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of chitosan in combination with cinnamon were investigated in frozen condition. Rainbow trout were combined with 2% chitosan in combination with different concentration of cinnamon essential oils (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 ml). The samples were kept at -18 ºC. Oxidative stability of samples was assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation level using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method. The bacterial test was assayed by counting colony forming unit. The evaluation of statistical differences between groups was analyzed using the student's T-test by SPSS software according to the statistical facts, the difference of more than 95% (P ≤0.05) was considered significant. Combination of chitosan with 0.25 and 0.5 ml cinnamon significantly decreased lipid peroxidation level compared to control group and chitosan combination with 0.5 ml cinnamon showed the synergistic effect. The antimicrobial activity of chitosan in combination with 0.5 ml cinnamon was higher than other concentrations and control groups. Chitosan in combination with cinnamon oil could considerably increase the oxidative stability and decrease the total count of bacteria in frozen fish. These results may suggest that these edible coatings can be used instead of artificial preservatives and non-edible coatings. Tahereh Mohajerfar Ahmad Erfanmanesh Parisa Sadighara Mostafa Mohajerfar Afsaneh Mohajer ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-06 2018-08-06 3 1/2 16 20 Antioxidant activity of raw milk and dairy products commonly consumed in Fars province, Iran Dairy products play an important role in our daily diet. The objective of the present study was to assess the antioxidant capacity of raw milk and dairy products of Fars province, Iran. A total of 30 samples of raw milk and commonly consumed dairy products including high temperature short time (HTST) and ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated milk, hard cheese, doogh (drink yogurt) and yogurt were collected from a dairy plant in which raw milk bulk was supplied by farms located in Shiraz and Marvdasht regions of Fars province, Iran. The antioxidant capacity of the samples was determined using two spectrophotometric methods: 2,¬ 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays. The results were expressed as mg of dry matter. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of raw, sterilized and pasteurized milk samples were similar and ranged from 8.46 ± 0.04 to 8.75 ± 0.08 mM EVCAA /100g dw. However, these samples exhibited significant differences (P < 0.001) among their reducing power capacities. Among the products, cheese represented the highest DPPH radical-scavenging capacity (5.02 ± 0.01 mM EVCAA /100g dw; p<0.001), while the highest reducing power activity was found in cheese samples (262.84 ± 0.18 mM EVCAA /100g dw; p<0.001). Dairy products offered a promising performance as the source of natural antioxidants. Maryam Jafari Gholamreza Jahed Khaniki Mehdi Roshanzamir Parisa Sadighara ##submission.copyrightStatement## 3 1/2 21 26 Risk of foodborne pathogens in various food products at retail in Qatar Foodborne illness is a major limitation to the advancement of world health. Bacterial pathogens among the leading causes of foodborne illness include Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Listeria. In an effort to understand the risk these foodborne pathogens pose regionally, this study investigated the presence of these pathogens among retail products in Qatar. Using a combination of bacterial selection and molecular detection, swabs and food samples collected from retail items (n = 287) were screened for the presence of these foodborne pathogens. E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 4.2% of all samples tested. Other E. coli serogroups were detected at varying proportions across all samples: O26 (5.9%), O111 (3.5%), O121 (1.4%), O45 (20.2%), O103 (2.1%) and O145 (2.1%). The occurrence of the other pathogens varied: Salmonella (13.6%), Listeria (5.2%), C. jejuni (1%), C. coli (8%) and C. lari (0%). While E. coli O157:H7 arguably receives the most attention in STEC surveillance programs, our study shows that other food adulterant serotypes, such as E. coli O45, could potentially play a role in infection. Although the prevalence for many pathogens is low, the higher occurrence of STEC genes and STEC serotype O45 is a reason for concern. Kenlyn E. Peters Yu-Chen Chang Ahmed Salem Ali Sultan Sanjay Doiphode Emad E. Ibrahim Hussni O. Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 3 1/2 27 33 Consumer’s perception and knowledge concerning safety of street food services in Pantnagar, India Food safety refers to the conditions and practices that protect the quality of food to prevent contamination and subsequent foodborne illnesses. Consumer’s food safety knowledge and practices determine their food choices and ultimately their health. The aim of the present study was to examine the knowledge of consumers and their perception concerning street food safety in Pantnagar. A survey was conducted on 70 consumers belonging to two sites namely hostels and markets, by using structured schedule containing 20 questions regarding the safety of street food services. Among the consumers, there was a lack of knowledge about food vehicles and etiologic agents associated with foodborne diseases and proper temperature of storage of cold and hot ready to eat foods. Educational level of consumers had the most significant effect on the knowledge of consumers regarding safe food handling practices with particular reference to safe ways to manage leftover food; bad habits that should not be practiced by food handlers; improper food handling can affect the food quality; contaminants that make food unsafe; and reasons of food spoilage. Results strongly emphasize the need for a properly designed food safety public education campaign, to enhance food safety awareness in consumers and thus prevent foodborne illnesses. Shivani Vyasa Archana Kushwaha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 3 1/2 34 39